Theoretical Paradigms Discussions.
A theory is created by linking a series of facts that lead to a specific meaning. In the study of sociology, theoretical paradigms are used to build theories. A paradigm is a model that sets standards in which something can be understood.
In your readings, you will find that the structural-functional paradigm is used to determine and define how a wide range of social structures work together. Social structures are organized patterns that influence our behaviors. For example, education, family, and the economy are all powerful structures that shape our behavior on a daily basis. Emile Durkheim is considered the founder of this particular paradigm.
Another paradigm that is used in sociology to generate theories is called the social-conflict approach, which assists researchers in focusing on inequalities in society. Race, class, and gender are all important sources of inequality that often generate conflict as well as social change. These paradigms operate on a larger, macro-level. Experts credit Karl Marx as the founder of this approach.
The third approach is to consider the processes through which individuals construct their own reality. This is called the symbolic-interaction paradigm and it focuses the study of sociology on the daily interactions of people within larger society. Unlike structural-functionalism and social-conflict, which both are macro-level paradigms, symbolic interactionism is micro-level because it looks at our behaviors in specific situations. For instance, people may react in different ways to the wink of an eye. George H. Mead (1863–1931) is credited with this paradigm.
Finally, the postmodern perspectives posit that the previous three perspectives have been unsuccessful in explaining social life in modern society. Theories within this paradigm note the increased amount of consumerism and individual freedom with a decreased connection to social institutions. Postmodern theorists note that there is no overarching “truth” and that large generalizations cannot explain individuals’ behavior. Jean Baudrillard (1929–2007) is often credited as one of the key founders of postmodern perspectives.
This discussion is designed to help acquaint you with the field of sociology. After you have read the reading assignment and lecture for the week, please respond to all parts of the discussion by the due date assigned:
- Identify the four major sociological theoretical paradigms. For each, what are the key tenets? How does each explain how society works?
- Which paradigm do you relate to best? How can you use this particular paradigm to explain your decision to attend college?
- Which of the four major research methods would you use, and how, to explore why adult students choose to return to college? What are the benefits and flaws of the particular method you chose for your imaginary study?
- Part 2 Based on the concept of culture, components of culure and multicutiralism.
- What are the top ten American values as found in the text? Which ones do you embrace and why? Are there any you reject, and if so, why? What three values would you add to the list if you could? Why are the values you would add not already in the top ten?
- What are five symbols that represent America? Do they also represent other components of culture, such as material objects or values?
- Consider the concept of cultural lag. Identify two American values that are “lagging.” What are three norms that are lagging? How does cultural lagging relate to the Westernization that is happening in other countries?
Some of the existing sociological paradigms include postmodernism, functionalism, symbolic interactionism, and conflict. Functionalism operates within the social setting in enhancing order is followed as the community members execute their daily activities. Dually, conflict aligns itself with power and control in the struggle of the resources. For instance, a young child may feel disrespected by his or her elderly siblings if they remain mute regarding any mistreatments. Additionally b, symbolic interactionism is an aspect that deals with interaction and association of community members within a society. For instance, one can restrain from seeking medical attention due to trauma associated with a specific ailment. Ultimately postmodernism paradigm emphasizes that an individual’s behavior ought not to be treated as per the confines of a larger group. The arguments above explain how society functions either towards or against the paradigm explained above.
In my capacity, relate with symbolic interactionism since I consider it applicable and reality as per my life experiences. I am a firm believer in the analogy that anything happens with destined reason and purpose. In one instance, I encountered a patient with difficulties in giving birth, and unfortunately, she lost her life due to the unavailability of medical professionals within the neighborhood. Arguably, I was intrigued by the occurrence, and it kept me thinking about how I can improve the interaction between nurses and society. Pregnant women are a group of individuals who require attention and unique interactive qualities. Thus, I purposed to pursue a career in nursing as an approach to mitigate the impact accrued to death rates and limited care to emergency care during birth.
Among the four categories of research approaches, I would settle for survey and field research. Arguably both methods can function the same together since, in one aspect, one will be collecting data through various means and utilizing the same data to execute an informed analysis. Notably, according to the approaches, it will be possible to identify the rationale behind the return of adults into schools. In the procedures, options will be offered if in case their reason cannot conform to any of the outlined categories. Overall, both approaches offered a wide range of merits ranging from first-hand data collection, the ability to gauge the accuracy of the responses, and saves time and resources that can be utilized elsewhere. However, in some instances, one cannot be in a position to gauge whether the respondents are hundred percent honest about the rationale. In most cases, the majority of the adults may fail to take the survey, thus leading to the limitation in collecting data that could have otherwise contributed to an informed conclusion in the study.
Some of the top American culture enshrined within the text include change, the importance of time, equality, competition associated with an enterprise and future orientation approach. Perplexingly I appreciate all the values outlined therein since they define my personality and arguably my native culture. It is worth to be conversant with how to utilize time and reap the maximum from any endeavor. Additionally, we struggle today mainly to better our tomorrow, and thus association future orientation as part of the values increases the need and urge to be more focused in life. Notably, I do not reject any of the benefits since they are meant to better society in various ways. In my opinion, I could add honesty, integrity, and kindness among American culture’s ten values. Arguably their inexistent in the initial list is due to the commercial approach by the majority of the benefits. Notably, all the top ten values focus on improving the economic well-being of American society and fail to focus more on humane values since they are considered a norm.
Accordingly, five symbols that represent America include the American Flag, the great seal, bald eagle, white house, and the monument in Washington. The American symbols are connected with crucial historical, cultural, and religious meanings within the confinement of the society. Generally, most of the symbols are inclined to define American values and strengths in various objects and sectors.
Some of the lagging values in America include freedom and liberty. In particular, it is worth noting that individuals are controlled more by politicians, limiting their freedom of expression. In most government projects, the citizens are not offered a considerable percentage of contribution. Dually, women and ladies fail to have freedom of their bodies since the majority confront the dressing and present ability of women in society. Equally, the majority of job opportunities are lost due to increased spending by the government. In other countries, need and desire for luxury life is lagging and tend to be related to westernization. The majority of the individuals within other countries tend to overspend as an approach to own material things in the western world. Additionally, traditional weddings are being westernized as part of accommodating modern styles in marriage. Ultimately mode of communication is lagging in other nations, but they tend to improve their English speaking capacity to march that of the western countries.