Private Sector Partnerships: Terrorism Essay

Private Sector Partnerships: Terrorism Essay.

Private Sector Partnerships: Terrorism Essay


Case Assignment

Private Sector Partnerships: Terrorism

Below are examples of private sector partners that should be covered in an emergency response plan for a town or city. Each are dependent upon the other and must work together:

  1. Transportation (e.g., trains, planes, ships, emergency vehicles)
  2. Telecommunication systems
  3. Utilities (e.g., water, electricity, waste disposal)
  4. Banking (responding to local credit demands)
  5. Hospitals
  6. Retail (e.g., lumber outlet, supermarket)

Although Transportation and Telecommunication are involved, for purposes of this assignment, you will focus on Hospitals. One of the main components of an emergency response plan is medical care. Depending on the type of terrorist response, medical facility caregivers must be ready to attend to the sick and injured.

Injuries could be from shrapnel, blasts, brain trauma, contamination from a biological agent, or radiation poisoning, for example. Those injured will be civilians, children, and first responders. Medical triaging, accessing supplies, and fielding medical personnel will certainly take priority. The Incident Commander must establish a liaison with the medical gatekeeper.

Some of the injured come from diverse backgrounds requiring assistance in understanding medical staff. Culturally appropriate communication is necessary. Depending on the multicultural configuration of the affected site, emergency hospital personnel may require interpreters or the aid of family members.


  1. View the video clip Radiological Terrorism – Training for Hospital Clinicians. A “dirty bomb” exploded in the city, exposing over 200 men, women, and children to radiological contamination. Some patients presented with life-threatening injuries while others were not physically compromised but were exposed radiologically.

    After viewing the video clip, comment on what the video says about treatment priorities; that is, life-threatening injuries vs. radiological contamination. Which should be attended to first and why?
  2. Go online and search the title: “hospital’s emergency operations plan.” NOTE: You may want to place a specific hospital’s name before the title. Go to the section on radiological contamination and describe the steps to be taken. If the plan does not have a radiological section, locate a section about terrorism.
  3. After reading the Shiu-Thornton et al. (2007) article located in the Background reading, what conclusion can you draw concerning Medical Interpreters as cultural brokers and gatekeepers?

Assignment Expectations

Length: This Case Assignment should be 3-5 pages, not counting the title page and references.

References: At least two references should be included from academic sources (e.g., peer-reviewed journal articles). Required readings are included. Quoted material should not exceed 10% of the total paper (since the focus of these assignments is critical thinking). Use your own words and build on the ideas of others. When material is copied verbatim from external sources, it MUST be enclosed in quotes. The references should be cited within the text and listed at the end of the assignment in the References section (preferably in APA format).

Organization: Subheadings should be used to organize your paper according to question.

Grammar and Spelling: While no points are deducted for minor errors, assignments are expected to adhere to standard guidelines of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence syntax. Points may be deducted if grammar and spelling impact clarity.


Student Name

University Affiliation

Private Sector Partnerships: Terrorism

  1. Treatment Priorities

Hospitals and medical services play an integral part within the healthcare system during times of disasters by providing the necessary or essential medical support to the affected communities. Any incidence that has the potential to cause patient surge, for instance a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear hazard, largely requires a multifunctional and multijurisdictional response that must include the provision of health care (Jennings, Arras, Barrett & Ellis, 2016). The emergency plans should be well established so that hospitals do not get overwhelmed as they attempt to provide the needed care during a critical event. It is recognized that without appropriate planning a sudden increase in the demand for healthcare services, and the possible disruption of communication during a terrorist attack, or any other disaster, can create significant barriers to the provision of medical care (Jennings, Arras, Barrett & Ellis, 2016). As such, in order to enhance the readiness of the health care facilities to meet the challenges of a disaster, such as a radiological contamination resulting from a “dirty bomb” explosion, hospitals need to be prepared to initiate the fundamental priority action,

            Hospitals are required to establish and put in place an Emergency Operation plan which describes how the institution responds to as well as recover from an emergency. The plan should include the six critical elements as established within the Joint Commissions Emergency Management Standards (nfrdstf, 2013). The six elements are communication, resources, security and safety, staff responsibilities, utilities, as well as clinical support activities. A case of radiological contamination, an incidence that is likely to affect the routine operations, may call for the coordination of responses involvement among hospitals as well as other health care providers. 

Accordingly, key management issues that involve the incident characteristics, situational status, and resource abilities, should be quickly established or determined and communicated among the response partners with the aim of identifying a common operational picture (nfrdstf, 2013). In responding to the emergency incident, one of the first thing that the responders have to do is to establish a clean treatment area which is often referred to as the cold one. In many mass casualty situations, such as the “dirty bomb” explosion incident, the number of casualties or patients and the level of their injuries may often exceed the capacity of the health facility and staff. In such a situation, the patients who may have sustained major injuries and have the greatest chance off survival must be managed first (nfrdstf, 2013). In essence, triage is considered as the most important mission in the emergency response. The overarching concept in the conventional triage is generally to undertake the greatest good for the individual patient. Secondly, the objective of the field triage is to do the greatest good for as many patients as possible.

The health care management of the radiological exposure require appropriate evaluation and categorization. As such, it is necessary to triage foe contamination among the patients and move them quickly to safely to the health care system. The medical responders will initially triage the casualties to ambulatory and nonambulatory groups

  • Hospital’s Emergency Operations Plan

The first priority for hospital faced with a radiological contamination emergency is to activate the institutions disaster plan in order to mobilize the essential resources including facilities, personnel, medication, equipment, and supplies required to address the emergency. Secondly, a clear chain of command within the hospital’s emergency department should be initiated. Between the time of notification and the arrival of the first casualty, the emergency response team will clear the emergency department of the regular patients and expand the hospital capacity (Jennings, Arras, Barrett & Ellis, 2016). Emergency physicians as well as trauma surgeons should be at hand to receive the casualties. the physicians are trained in raid assessment as well as general trauma care. The next step is to set u a triage area which allows for unimpeded movement of the ambulances into the emergency department.

When the casualties of radiological exposure present in the hospital, the medical personnel will take a series of steps to determine the level of severity and absorbed radiation dose. The information from the initial radiation levels is important in determining the severity of the illness and which treatments to be used (Jennings, Arras, Barrett & Ellis, 2016). The information is also important in determining whether the person who has been exposed to the radiological exposure is likely to survive. The patients are often put under treatment as soon as the assessments are completed. The treatment goal is to prevent radioactive contamination, manage life-threatening injuries which may include burns, and trauma, reduce symptoms, as well as reduce pain.   

  • Medial Interceders

The conclusions drawn from Shiu-Thornton et al. (2007) article, Medical interpreters are important in the linguistic and cultural linkages to people or communities with low English proficiency. However, the current disaster responses plans do not adequately address the needs of these groups with limited English proficiency. The authors also note that the complexities culture and language pose significant challenges to emergency responders to effectively reaching the diverse populations. According to Shiu-Thornton et al. (2007), medical interpreters are an untapped resource in emergency response.  It is, therefore, important that the emergency response plans incorporate clear and proactive strategies to meet the needs of those with low English proficiency to avoid adverse effects in a disaster scenario. However, there is a growing interest in the field of medical interpreters. There is also a growing focus on cultural competency in health care.


Jennings, B., Arras, J., Barrett, D. & Ellis, B. (2016). Emergency Ethics: Public Health Preparedness and Response, Oxford University Press.

Just in Time Disaster Training Library. [nfrdstf]. (2013, September 25). Radiological terrorism: Training for hospital clinicians [Video file]. Retrieved from

Shiu-Thornton et al. (2007). Disaster preparedness for limited English proficient communities: Medical Interpreters as cultural brokers and gatekeepers. Public Health Reports, 122(4), 466-471. Retrieved from

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