Hominin species characteristics Sample Essay.
Hominin species characteristics
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1. This is Intro Anthropology class. To save your time, I have organized a shorter instruction Below. Please follow the direction;
Describe in detail the notable characteristics of the following hominin species:
• Ardipithecus ramidus
• Australopithecus afarensis
• Homo habilis
• Homo erectus
• Homo neanderthalensis
• Homo sapiens
Each species needs to include:
• Date range
• Geographical range
• Paleoenvironmental evidence for habitat
• Anatomical features indicative of bipedalism
• Anatomical features indicative of arboreality, if any
• Evidence for diet
• Evidence for social system and mating system, if any
• Evidence for cultural behaviors (such as stone tool industries, art, burials, language), if any.
1. At least 200 words describing each species
2. Write about each species in the chronological order
3. Provide in-text citations if needed.
This is a intro anthropology class, no need to write too deep, just follow the instruction, it won’t be hard.
Just Please read the PAPER INSTRUCTION. all guidelines in there. Thankyou again
Draft Needed in 5hrs: Please update partial of document if you finish, so I can see the progress.
Ardipithecus ramidus species used to live in Eastern Africa, specifically in some parts of Ethiopia, Gona and Middle Awash. They have been dated to 4.4 million years ago (Smithsonian, 2017). The first reports of Ardipithecus ramidus were made in 1994 however in 2009 scientists found a partial skeleton belonging to the species. It was named ‘Ardi’ which means ground in Ethiopia. They had a stiff foot that had a divergent large toe which was used for movement on trees and grasslands and bipedalism (Bradshaw, 2017). The species would climb trees more like an African ape. Scientists have proven that the species resided in an environment that was either wooded or with small water bodies such as lakes. There is enough evidence that support this species walked upright and on two limbs. The brain capacity was small and so was the structure which ranged from 300 to 350 cm3 (PBS, 2017). This makes them the most primitive species in the Ardipithecus group. Both male and female species had similar teeth structure as their canines were both reduced. Their molars were smaller compared to any other Ardipithecus species (PBS, 2017). Their teeth structure suggest that species mainly consumed fruits. Research shows that the species was social. They lived in groups and there was minimal aggression in the groups or between different males.
Australopithecus afarensis species also known as Lucy’s species used to live in Eastern Africa, precisely in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. He is dated to 3.85 to 2.95 million years ago (Smithsonian, 2017). The species is best known as species that lived for a long time because it had survived for more than nine hundred thousand years. The species had both apelike and human traits. He had a small brain structure of 500cm3 and small brain capacity (PBS, 2017). Their face had jaws that were sticking out although they had a low forehead. The species had long arms that were strong. Their arms had curved fingers which were used for tree climbing. There is strong evidence for bipedalism as they stood and walked on two legs like modern humans. They also walked upright. They lived on trees and on the ground and it is believed their habitat helped in their survival (Bradshaw, 2017). The male species were heavier and larger than the female species. They had small canines and consumed fruits and plants for their food. The children of Australopithecus afarensis lived in groups where one male was dominating a few females (PBS, 2017). It is believed that the species communicated through verbal and non-verbal means. Their children grew up very fast and matured quickly leaving little room for socialization during their childhood.
Homo habilis species is also known as ‘The Handy Man’ lived in Eastern and Southern Africa. He is dated to 2.4 to1.4 million years ago (Smithsonian, 2017). The species had a smaller face compared to other older species as it was less protruding. They also had smaller teeth but they had a bigger brain capacity and structure. They were short but had long arms (PBS, 2017). They walked on two feet and had an upright posture which is a sign of bipedalism. The male species were heavier and slightly taller than the female species. Research shows that there was enough evidence to support the claim that the species may have had the ability of rudimentary speech (Bradshaw, 2017). The Homo habilis species invented stone tools which they used during hunting. They used the tools with the sharp edges to cut meat and defend themselves from the hostile situation in their environment. He is believed that the species co-existed with other bipedal primates such like Paranthropus boisei which are now extinct (PBS, 2017). This species does not have a specialized diet which may have contributed to its survival. There is a striking similarity between Homo habilis and Homo erectus. Some scientists believe the two species had lived together for 500,000 years.
Homo erectus species used to live in Eastern, Northern and Southern Africa as well as some parts of Asia specifically, China, Indonesia and the republic of Georgia. He is dated to have lived between 1.89 million and 143, 000 years ago (Smithsonian, 2017). The Homo erectus had an imbalanced body with longer legs and shorter arms. It is believed they habitat was on the ground as their arms were not long enough to climb trees. He possessed bipedal abilities as he walked on two legs in an upright structure. The long legs gave it the ability to walk and run for many miles (Bradshaw, 2017). They had a bigger brain structure and capacity of 850 cm3 and 110cm3 (PBS, 2017). They a smaller face that was less protruding. They also had little hair on their bodies. The male species were bigger than the female species with a difference of 25% (PBS, 2017). The species had smaller teeth but their molars were big which suggests that they had a more specialized diet. They invented fire and used it to cook food and scare off animals. The higher brain power as scientists argue is as a result of diet rich in energy. Research shows that the Homo erectus species cared for their old and weak members.
Homo neanderthalensis species lived in Europe, southwestern and Central Asia. They are dated to 400, 000 to 40,000 years ago (Smithsonian, 2017). They resemble the modern day man. Their cheek bones are angled. The middle part of their face is large. Their noses are big for warming cold air and making the dry air humid (PBS, 2017). They had shorter bodies but had a bigger circumference compared to the Homo sapiens. They also had strong thick bones. Scientists believe it was an adaptation for surviving in the cold. They walked on two legs thus possessing bipedal abilities. Their brain capacity and structure is equal to the modern man (PBS, 2017). The male species were slightly taller and heavier than their female species. However they were stronger than the Homo sapiens. They possessed a variety of tools and they could control fire (Bradshaw, 2017). They wore clothes from animal skin and lived in shelters. They hunted large animal and they also relied on plants for food. This species could make ornaments and objects that had symbolic meaning to them. There is enough proof that shows that the Homo neanderthalensis lived in groups and they buried their dead and placed flowers on their graves. Their behavior was more sophisticated compared to any other species before them.
Homo sapiens species originally evolved in Africa and presently live in every part of the world. He is referred to as the modern man. He dated from 200,000 years ago to present years (Smithsonian, 2017). While living in Africa the Homo sapiens hunted and gathered different foods. In the process they developed behaviors that help them adapt to the ever changing environment. Their skeletons are lighter compared to other species (Bradshaw, 2017). They possess big brains which differs from one person to another. However the average size is 1300cm3 brain capacity. Their face have an almost vertical forehead. They have smaller teeth and their jaws are not as developed as they predecessors (PBS, 2017). They walk on two legs and in an upright manner. The modern man has gone to school and has to work to earn money for survival. The modern man has invented technology which he uses to make his life easier (PBS, 2017). The Homo sapiens makes use of the environment for farming and extraction of material that he needs for survival. This species is the most intelligent of all other species before. Homo sapiens live in groups and the smallest unit is referred to as a family. The male species protects the female species in the group and provides for their needs though with time, the modern man has evolved and each species male or female can fend for themselves.
Bradshaw. (2017). Origins. BradShaw Foundation. Retrieved 27 November 2017, from http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/origins/homo_sapiens.php
PBS. (2017). Who’s Who in Human Evolution. PBS. Retrieved 27 November 2017, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/evolution/whos-who-human-evolution.htm
PBS. (2017). Origins of Humankind. PBS. Retrieved 27 November 2017, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/humans/humankind
Smithsonian. (2017). What Does it Mean to be Human. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 27 November 2017, from http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-family-tree