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Extreme Terrorism Sample Essay

Extreme Terrorism Sample Essay.

Extreme Terrorism Sample Essay

Category: Political Scince

Provide in-text citations and a list of references at the end of your answers. Applies to any material you refer to while writing.

Provided a few articles you can choose to use them or outside sources or both. 

Answer only question 3;

Let’s consider two extreme methods of terrorism: suicide terrorism and cyber

terrorism. How are these two methods of attacks different from each other with

regards to the intent and motivations of terrorists, their target audience, and

scale of damage? Provide examples for both methods.

Requirements:  700 word assignments 

Extreme Terrorism

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Extreme terrorism

 Traditionally, terrorism has been defined as using violence against unarmed populations to make political or religious statements. But the advent of information technology has introduced a new aspect to terrorism: cyber-terrorism. This article investigates the differences between suicide and cyber methods of terrorism in terms of their nature, intent, target audience, and scale of damage.

The nature of the terrorism

Both suicide and cyber terrorism are examples of extreme methods whose damages are far-reaching. Suicide terrorism entails the arming of willing individuals with explosive or other weapons to inflict harm on populations. This form of attack was used as early as 400 BC, where sailors set ships ablaze, steering them towards the opposing fleets (Harmon, Mujkic, Kaukinen, & Weir, 2018). An extreme case of suicide bombing was witnessed on September 11th, 2001, when passenger planes were hijacked and flown into various public infrastructures in the United States. On the other hand, cyber terrorism is the political use of computerized connectivity to threaten, cause harm, or coerce a government or population into some action (Poliveiraa, 2019). Cyber terrorism grants the terrorist anonymity and a reduced risk of bodily damage.

Intent and motivation of the terrorist methods

While their methods vary, both suicide and cyber terrorism are employed by their perpetrators to make a public statement to their targets. But of the two, it is suicide terrorism that stands out in its resulting violence and destruction to human life. The goal of those who use this form of terrorism is to instill fear even in those who are not directly affected by the given attack (Harmon et al., 2018). Suicide terrorists leave people feeling insecure wherever they are. It is an act of violence that seeks to emotionally and psychologically weaken as many people as possible with the goal of pressuring their government to either carry out or refrain from a particular course of action (Gross, Canetti, & Vashdi, 2017, p. 50). This form of terror can be self-seeking, altruistic, or fatalistic (Ward, 2018, p. 89). The self-seeking terrorist angrily gets back at the society for personal reasons, the altruistic terrorist as a fulfillment of some belief or commitment, and the fatalistic as a means of death while committing random destruction.

Cyber terrorism may be used, like any other method of terror-based coercion, to force a particular course of action or sabotage the targeted infrastructure or country. An example is a recent cyberattack on the United Nations where the network was targeted for intelligence gathering (“Significant cyber incidents | Center for strategic and international studies,” 2021). Most cyber-attacks are motivated by competition between institutions or governments.

Target audience

Suicide terrorism targets the most vulnerable sections of the population with the most violent tactics to leave people with the highest sense of horror and helplessness. The nature of the existing conflict and the statement the terrorists seek to communicate determines the target that suicide terrorists settle on. For terrorists with religious motivation, their target is against those who appear to be humiliating their faith (Ward, 2018, p. 91). An example of this is the September 11th, 2001 attacks.

Cyber terrorism targets information systems, computer software, data, and other computerized essential installations. Like suicide terrorism, cyber-attacks aim at an institution’s or government’s most vulnerable points. For example, malware and viruses may be used to shut down military targets (Gross et al., 2017, p. 50). An attack may also target sensitive data and information to gain illegal access to computer systems or blackmail the targets for financial gain.

Scale of damage

Of the two methods of inflicting terror, suicide terrorism has the most immediate and horrifying damages. This is because it unleashes destruction directly on human populations in contrast with cyber terrorism, which targets data, software, and government infrastructures. For instance, between 2001 and 2014, a total of 37,562 died as a result of suicide terrorism as other 96,644 were injured (Harmon et al., 2018). In extreme cases of suicide terrorism, there is also massive destruction of property. This was the case when the hijacked planes were flown into selected infrastructures. Because of the pain and emotive reaction associated with suicide terrorism, the response from the targeted country usually matches the aggression experienced. Cyber terrorism rarely leads to such damages except when used to serve the planning of suicide terrorism.  

Conclusion

The threats of terrorism are increasingly threatening the landscape of human life. These attacks take various forms as they adapt to technological advancements.

Word Count: 741

References

Gross, M. L., Canetti, D., & Vashdi, D. R. (2017). Cyberterrorism: Its effects on psychological well-being, public confidence and political attitudes. Journal of Cybersecurity, 3(1), 49-58. doi:10.1093/cybsec/tyw018

Harmon, V., Mujkic, E., Kaukinen, C., & Weir, H. (2018, December). Causes & explanations of suicide terrorism: A systematic review. Retrieved from https://www.hsaj.org/articles/14749

Poliveiraa. (2019, June). Cybercrime module 14 key issues: Cyberterrorism. Retrieved from https://www.unodc.org/e4j/en/cybercrime/module-14/key-issues/cyberterrorism.html

Significant cyber incidents | Center for strategic and international studies. (2021, September). Retrieved from https://www.csis.org/programs/strategic-technologies-program/significant-cyber-incidents

Ward, V. (2018). What do we know about suicide bombing? Politics and the Life Sciences, 37(1), 88-112. doi:10.1017/pls.2017.31

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