Developmental Stages Matrix Essay

Developmental Stages Matrix Essay.

Developmental Stages Matrix Essay

University of Phoenix Material

Developmental Stages Matrix

Developmental StagePhysical changesCognitive changesSocioemotional changes
Infancy 0-2 yearsThere is an exponential amount of weight gain and bone growth during the stage of infancy. In just these two years, most children reach “half their adult height and three-fourths of their adult brain size (Stassen Berger, 2010). By the age of two, children are expected to have quadrupled their body weights since birth and tripled their brain weights. In the event that a child is not gaining adequate body weight, a physical safeguard known as head-sparing allows stored fat to continue increasing head size in order to permit brain growth. As babies grow, they gain the muscle strength necessary for crawling, sitting up, and then walking. Typically, between 8 to 10 months of age, the baby can crawl, and by 12 months, the child can walk independently.   Reference: Stassen Berger, K. (2010). Invitation to the Life Span. Retrieved from the University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.As the infant grows, pruning processes in the brain’s neuronal branches eliminate unnecessary connections and allow for new ones. This process ultimately allows the infant to learn new things as the old, unused traits are let go. Newborn reflexes become honed into gross motor skills, such as walking and jumping, and fine motor skills, such as finger movements and “movements of the tongue, jaw, lips, and toes” (Stassen Berger, 2010). Usually by about 6 months of age, babies can grasp and hold onto an object. The maturation of these skills is reflective of brain development (Stassen Berger, 2010). Also, the age range between one and two years follows an incredibly rapid growth of cognitive aspects such as concept, memory, and the ability to form sentences.   Reference: Stassen Berger, K. (2010). Invitation to the Life Span. Retrieved from the University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.The newborn’s senses are already fully developed at the time of birth. However, these senses take time to adjust to the external stimuli that will allow the infant to perceive his/her surroundings. As sensation and perception work together over time, the child can better interpret social interactions. According to Stassen Berger, the “entire package of the five senses furthers two goals: social interaction […] and comfort” (2010). Parents who provide soothing sights, sounds, movements, and physical touch allow their child to feel safe and secure in his/her environment. As the infant grows, he/she picks up numerous cues from parents. Children learn to communicate in any way that they can, first by gesturing, then by babbling and eventually, talking. Deaf children learn signing necessities within the first year of age. Learning language, however it is acquired, allows for necessary social connections. As for emotional development, “within the first two years, infants progress from reactive pain and pleasure to complex patterns of social awareness” (Stassen Berger, 2010). Emotional development progress exponentially from the newborn who cries simply from hunger, the four-month-old who smiles in response to stimuli, the four to eight-month-old who experiences anger, the 9- to 14-month-old who experiences fear of strangers and separation anxiety, to the 18-month-old who has developed enough self-awareness to experience pride, shame, and embarrassment.
Early Childhood  Healthy children will grow on average three inches per year during this time. Most will be lean and tend to be taller. Caloric demand is lower during this time period. Most children in this age range will be participating with friends learning fine motor skills. Activities such as tree climbing, bike riding running and catching help encourage muscle growth.  Good nutrition will help with bone and muscle development while reducing the chance for developing childhood obesity and related diseases.During this time period, the brain will grow from 75 percent to 90 percent of what it will finally weigh during adulthood. Memory retention will increase. Lateralization develops. Focus and concentration improve and emotional outbursts like temper tantrums subside. Speech and the ability to form words completely gets better. The ability to reason and solve problems increases. Imagination and self-play grows and allows the child to handle complex problems in a logical manner.Children develop a sense of their own selves. They can describe themselves and peers by size, behavior and other external factors easily. They have a high opinion of their personality and their self-esteem builds. Emotional controls reduce temper tantrums and physical outbursts. As they grow emotionally, their core group of friends increases. They learn about empathy for others Cooperation on the playground, in class or other group of peers’ situations increases sociability. Children learn to share freely and express their feelings to friends and family.
Middle and Late Childhood  The physical changes in middle and late childhood are slow but consistent. Changes are exhibited in various areas of a child.  On the brain region, the brain volume stabilizes. Berk (2017) adds that the pathway and prefrontal cortex of the brain increases. The child leg height, head and waist circumferences, on the hand, decrease in relation to the body height. The bones of the child harden and can withstand pressure. Lastly, the body cells increases in number, but it is more in boys compared to girls.   Reference: Berk, L. (2017). Development through the lifespan. Pearson Education India.At middle and late childhood, the following cognitive changes are observed: intelligence, information processing, and language development. The changes in information processing include growth in memory, critical thinking, creativity, and metacognition. The intelligence of the child also advances. It involves improved problem –solving skills. It also encompasses growth in learning and applying various experiences in life. According to Berk (2017), a child‘s intelligence grows in various forms; they include practical, analytical and creative intelligence. Under language development, the child vocabulary and grammar, reading and bilingual expand.   Reference: Berk, L. (2017). Development through the lifespan. Pearson Education India.During middle and late childhood, one experiences emotional, personality, peer and family relationship changes. A child will have self- esteem changes; she/he will either develop high self-esteem or low esteem. The child will likewise start developing self-efficacy. At this stage, children also have self-regulation in their behavior, thoughts, and emotions. Additionally, children will begin spending little time with their parents, and less physical form of punishment is used by parents. Schwartz and Bates (2015) assert that the peer changes include:  peer group increase and a rise in the importance of social matter and status.   Reference: Schwartz, D., Lansford, J. E., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2015). Peer victimization during middle childhood as a lead indicator of internalizing problems and diagnostic outcomes in late adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology44(3), 393-404.  
AdolescenceDuring adolescence there is rapid physical growth and sexual maturity that begin with a rush of hormones somewhere between the ages of 8 and 14 and end with an individual of adult size with reproductive potential. For girls, who begin final development earlier than boys, somewhere around the age of 9 the nipples begin to grow and develop, we begin to see the development of pubic hair, there is a dramatic growth spurt, and breast development during this age group. For boys, puberty beings closer to 9 ½ to 10 years of age. It is during this time that we see the growth of the testes, first pubic hairs, enlargement of the penis and a growth spurt. For both sexes puberty is complete about four years after the first signs, though additional muscle and fat may be added on in late adolescence.  During adolescence the finalization of the frontal cortex is fully underway, and rather than environment, experience’s help develops further cognitive ability and begin developing personality. Biorhythms are altered, there is an increased need for sleep, and the circadian rhythm will fluctuate during this time. Adrenal glands begin maturity. Hormones, including sex hormones are especially active during this time and one in particular, GnRH, causes the productions of estrogens and androgens.  Puberty plays a significant role in socioemotional development during adolescence and depending on whether the individual develops earlier or later. Girl who begin puberty sooner than their peers are more likely to develop low self-esteem, poor body image, and may engage in more risk-taking behaviors. Boys who enter puberty early are likely to be more aggressive and partake in more risky behaviors as well. Adolescents begin to separate from the parents and thus build closer bonds with their friends and peer group and develop second “families”. With the development of the personality, adolescents build friendships based on common interests and experiences. There is a strong desire to “fit in” and be accepted by peers and thus peer pressure is common amongst adolescents.  
Early AdulthoodIn early adulthood, physical changes do continue to happen in both male and female.  Even though females tend to stop growing in height by the time they reach the age of 18, there are still physical changes that can occur in early adulthood.  Males do continue to grow in height after they reach the age of 18, but they do stop growing in height when they reach the age of 21.  The male and female body both progress in adding fat throughout early adulthood.  Both genders also add muscle to their body throughout early adulthood as well.  Eating habits can change throughout this stage of life for both genders.  Early adulthood is a time when most individuals leave their families home, continue to further their education, and find a home for themselves.  When this happens, many will change their eating habits.  Normally these changes in eating habits are not particularly positive changes.  It can be easier for individuals to eat how they want instead of eating how they should be once they are living away from their parents and guardians. In early adulthood, individuals now take what they have learned in their past years and start to put it to use in the lives.  Individuals use all of the knowledge they have obtained thus far in their life to figure out their next steps and how to handle certain situations.  It has also been stated that individuals in early adulthood start to use more developed thinking and understanding of situations and things going on around them.  In early adulthood, individuals can better understand vital information and why it is important.  Individuals can also put information together and make their own opinions on certain topics.In early adulthood, socioemotionally changes can be the biggest changes that people go through during the period of time.  Being that in this stage of life individuals start their own life for themselves, they must learn to handle with emotions and be social with others around them completely by themselves as well.  This task can take on an emotional toll on anybody.  During this period of time in a person’s life, it can be easy for an individual to become lonely and essentially become depressed.  There are also many changes that happen during early adulthood that can cause loneliness and depression to take place as well.  During this period of time, it is also easy for a person to not fully know who they are.   Reference: AllPsychologyCareers. (2018). Early Adulthood. Retrieved from  
Middle AdulthoodMiddle-Adulthood is when everything starts to slow down. Your body starts to wrinkle: hair starts greying, It is hard to keep one’s weight down, hearing is going, time for glasses. For women menopause is part of this stage, causing mood swings, hot flashes, and weight gain.For middle-aged adults, the brain starts slowing down as well as the rest of the body. The reduction in neurons and synapse can cause memory loss and reaction time to slow down. If one uses drugs, alcohol, or tobacco, these may contribute to an increased loss of brain function.Developing independence and individuality during this stage is something one comes to terms with. We often value relationships more at this time in our lives.
Late AdulthoodDecline in energy levels and muscle mass.  Immune system does not function at its peak level anymore.  Skin forms wrinkles and becomes thinner.  Eyesight worsens and often times glasses are needed.  Hearing may worsen as well.  Reflexes slow down and dexterity may be impaired. Hypothalamus and pre-frontal cortex shrink.  Sexual dysfunction in both genders may occur.   Reference: or mild cognitive impairment due to a stroke may occur at this stage of life.  Older adults often rely on the top-down strategy (deductive reasoning) to make decisions. Memory is good when writing but verbal memory or “tip-of-the-tongue” memory declines.  May have trouble determining certain facial expressions.  Struggle in seeing where people are looking.  This can impair social function since it aids in determining emotions and context of conversation.   Reference: Stassen Berger, K. (2010). Invitation to the Life Span. Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.Continuity in their personality allows them to become fully themselves.  Contemplate accomplishments and regrets in life.  This life review usually results in a feeling of integrity or despair. Many retire from their career and become involved with political or religious organizations.  They value their independence and work on their homes.  Friendships deepen.  Sometimes, they experience the death of a spouse.   Reference: Stassen Berger, K. (2010). Invitation to the Life Span. Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.  

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