Critical Thinking: Discussion Posts Paper.
Type of paper:
Business and Management: Business
Format or citation style:
this for a discussion post, find real examples to blend in conversations. All APA format , peer reviewed articles
• Your posts must clearly demonstrate that you completed the assigned readings by drawing upon them in your answers. If you are unable to demonstrate that you completed the readings, you will surely receive a failing grade.
• Your initial posts must provide examples in every instance where applicable.
# module 3
1. Describe from your reading and research what you believe is the SCIENCE that forms the essence of the technology (the source by which a PRODUCT FORM is derived) that is at the core of the product that you selected. For example, science behind automated vacuum cleaners (product) uses technology that is based on the science of robotics and artificial intelligence. Provide at least one example that helps to illuminate what science supports the development of various new product forms.
2. Select an organization, research and select at least one CORE COMPETENCY of your selected organization, and explain how your selected core competency exhibits the characteristics of core competencies.
3. Select a product and describe the FORM OF YOUR PRODUCT in terms of its product category (the physical item, or, for a service, the set of steps by which the service is provided) of the product you selected. For example, relative to soap, we might offer either a bar form or a liquid form. Provide at least one example that helps to illustrate various product forms that allow organizations to increase their product variety.
4. Select a product and investigate and describe from your reading and research what you believe is the SCIENCE which SUPPORTS THE PROCESS TECHNOLOGY that is employed to produce the product you selected. Provide at least one example that helps to illuminate how new product process creation methods support new product development.
5. If PRODUCT INNOVATION is defined as the manner by which the attributes of a product (a good not a service in this case) provide customer benefits and process innovation is defined as the methods by which important product attributes are incorporated into products, provide an example of product and production processes associated with a well-known product and attempt to explain how product development and production processes relate to one another (Kraft 1990).
Drones have become a product that is vastly being used in the current era. For the development of this product, different technologies are incorporated to achieve the desired goal. Some of these technologies, which are the science behind drone manufacturing, are inclusive of robotics and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle technology (UAV). According to Kumari & Raghunath (2016), UAV technology is encompassed of; navigation and remote-control technology, as well as programing and visual techniques. Since scientists refer to drones as robots, robotics technology plays a part in their manufacture. First, the hardware part of the drone is assembled using light composite materials that help in the reduction of weight and improve manoeuvrability. Additionally, the aerodynamics of the drone comes to play to enable it to cruise at the desired altitude.
Once the hardware part is complete, the software parts come into play, requiring a combination of different technologies for the production to be successful. The control system has to be programmed to allow navigation and remote ground control. For navigation technology, the global positioning system is adopted to pinpoint the particular location of a drone, especially those that are designed for survey purposes (Kumari & Raghunath, 2016). Obstacle detection sensors are also installed during the manufacturing process to avoid a collision. To achieve this, algorithms and programming are used to create 3D maps that enable the drone to detect and avoid objects. In more advanced drones, visual technology is used to make video transmissions. A camera is mounted on the drone allowing for live images and videos to be transmitted.
The apple company is one organization that has dominated the technology industry over the years. The core competency of the organization is innovativeness in terms of design and technology. This core competency has allowed the company to remain competitive and venture into new markets which generate huge profits. Naylor (2001), asserts that the characteristics of core competencies are inclusive of; provision of unifying principles for an organization, provision of access to diverse markets, and the production of end products that are hard to imitate. The core competence of the Apple company meets this criterion in various aspects. First, innovation is a crucial unifying component of the organization. This is witnessed through the overall goals that require innovative strategies to improve competitiveness.
Some of the innovative products that the company has produced over the years include iMac, iPhone, and iPod. Additionally, these products made the company to evaluated as the most innovative company from 2006-2008. Indeed, such kind of innovations have opened up markets at a global scene, increasing the company’s profits and maintaining its competitive advantage. Moreover, the core competence of innovation has helped to meet the preferences and requirements of customers through dynamic capabilities. To meet customer demands, the company has established iTunes, which is a music download site. Moreover, the innovation of iCloud allows users of their products to create backups for safe storage of data. Ultimately, the core competence of innovation has made it hard for competitors to imitate Apple’s products, benefiting the company throughout.
The automobile industry is highly characterized by product variation. Such observations are seen in the production of cars, whereby the same model is manufactured in both an automatic and a manual transmission. Prasad (1998) states that when products are designed and manufactured in different categories and forms, an organization increases its product variety. Additionally, it improves the brand of a particular company, as well as the products manufactured. In terms of car specifications, the production of manual and automatic vehicles ensure that the products are competitive in meeting the needs of customers. In turn, the market base of a product is increased, realizing increased benefits for the company. Moreover, this form of the utility of products enables companies to target a particular set of clients.
In the car business, different customers are conversant with manual vehicles, while others prefer the automatic ones. To meet these demands, companies are forced to invest their resources in product design and research. Additionally, they are required to strategize on product development to create form utility. In as much as product variety increases the complexity of a company, the benefits that are realized in the long-term do surpass complexity. Variety of product forms provides for a more extensive selection, meeting the preference and tastes of a wide range of customers. Companies who deal in the car sector utilize this strategy, and in the long run, they maximize and improve the perceived value of their products.
A microwave is a product that has been used for many decades since its inventions. The manufacture of this product utilizes microwave technology. In its production, a wide range of science factors do play a significant role in guiding the development of products. Other technologies that interact to facilitate the success of a microwave are wave theory and electromagnetism. The National Research Council (1994) argued that a basic understanding of microwaves and the manner they interact with materials is required to understand microwave processing. Additionally, it is essential in adopting the developmental process into the production of the desired product.
In the production of a new product like a microwave, the first step is usually the development of the innovation goal. Next, an analysis of whether the goals of the product meet the needs of the customers is executed. If the findings indicate that the market requirements are met, the design is initiated for the new product. Lastly, the implementation sees to it that specifications are met. In developing a new product, it can replace a product that previously existed, to increase the market scope. In the case of microwaves, mass production opened up a new market. Additionally, the new product was sold at reasonable prices allowing for affordability at the household level. Through this, it is evident that process creation supports the development of new products.
Product development and process innovations have to co-exist to ensure that the attributes of a particular product provide consumer benefits and increase competitiveness (Reichstein & Salter, 2006). To understand the relation between the two, the Coca-Cola company serves as a perfect example. The company has existed for over a century, and it is still the most dominant and competitive in the beverage sector globally. Innovations in the company’s products have contributed to its survival over the years. One of the conventional products, coke, has been characterized by different designs and shapes to withstand changing times and keep up with the product life cycle. The original contour shaped bottles were used for differentiation from competitors.
By 2000, an ultra-glass contour bottle had been introduced to reduce both costs and weight. This aspect led to an increase in market share as more people would afford coke on a regularly. As Reichstein & Salter (2006) state, process innovations have to match with product innovations to improve production and service operations. Following the redesigning of the coke bottle, the innovative process was utilized in the bottling system. The company’s bottling partners introduced large scale systems for bottling operations and ease of economics. Ultimately, process and product innovations have allowed the company to cut down on production costs while improving the quality of the products.
Kumari, P., & Raghunath, I. (2016). Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (DRONE). International Journal of Engineering and Computer Science. doi: 10.18535/ijecs/v5i6.05
National Research Council. (1994). Microwave Processing of Materials. Washington: National Academies Press.
Naylor, R. (2001). Core Competencies What They Are and How to use Them. Retrieved 1 August 2019, from https://web.stanford.edu/dept/SUL/library/institute21/summer/speakers/trelstad_mag.html
Prasad, B. (1998). Designing products for variety and how to manage complexity. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 7(3), 208-222. doi: 10.1108/10610429810222840
Reichstein, T., & Salter, A. (2006). Investigating the sources of process innovation among UK manufacturing firms. Industrial and Corporate Change, 15(4), 653-682. doi: 10.1093/icc/dtl014