Criminal Justice: Experimentation sample essay.
Category: Criminal Justice
Briefly describe the logic of doing an experiment. Additionally, discuss the logic for why well conducted experimentation is considered to be the “gold-standard” of empirical research. Finally, why do experiments seem to provide such powerful causal insight in science?
Gold standard of evidence: The randomized controlled trial (rct). Gold Standard of Evidence: The Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) | Interactive Autism Network. (n.d.). Retrieved September 22, 2021, from https://iancommunity.org/cs/understanding_research/randomized_controlled_trials.
Khan Academy. (n.d.). Introduction to experimental design (video). Khan Academy. Retrieved September 22, 2021, from https://www.khanacademy.org/science/high-school-biology/hs-biology-foundations/hs-biology-and-the-scientific-method/v/introduction-to-experimental-design.
Singleton, R., & Straits, B. C. (2018). Approaches to Social Research. Oxford University Press.
Shadish, W.R., Cook, T.D., & Campbell, D.T. (2002). Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Requirements: 3 paragraphs
Experimentation is currently considered the standard practice when trying to prove or disprove a theory. However, the process of experimentation originates from the scientific revolution in the seventeenth century. Before the seventeenth century, most individuals used observation to prove their theories formed either from divine revelation or from previous human principles believed to be accurate (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002). However, over time, various philosophers disproved previously accepted theories, thus leading to the preference of observational facts over principles based on divine revelations. Eventually, the preference for observation resulted in the adoption of experimentation as scientist manipulated the environment to tests their theories. Experimentation had several advantages in that its results were replicable and thus could be tested by anyone to prove the theory.
Experimentation is currently considered the gold standard for empirical research. The phenomenon primarily occurs due to the methods freedom from researcher bias (Interactive Autism Network, n.d.). Experimentation enables the researcher to collect and analyze data without affecting the outcome, thus ensuring the research conclusion is effective and replicable. One of the methods of experimentation commonly used is the randomized control trial (Interactive Autism Network, n.d.). In the healthcare sector, experimentation involves comparing two random groups to test the effects of new drugs. The method ensures the members of each group are randomly chosen to avoid biased results. One of the groups is also used as a control group to test whether the drug is effective. The method enables scientists to test the level of effectiveness of the drug.
Experiments are well suited to study causal relationships as they enable researchers to manipulate the cause and identify if it results in a difference in outcomes. Experiments also enables researchers to asses whether a specific cause results to a certain outcome or a variation in condition will result in different results (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002). The researcher therefore test whether the variations in a cause result in a variation in expected result. Experimentation also provides a platform for researchers to rule out other causal effects by variation of conditions. Therefore the researcher can also determine if an outcome has multiple causes hence making the research more effective.
Interactive Autism Network. (n.d.). Gold standard of evidence: The randomized controlled trial (RCT). Retrieved September 23, 2021, from https://iancommunity.org/cs/understanding_research/randomized_controlled_trials
Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi‐experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Social Service Review, 76(3), 510-514. doi:10.1086/345281