Baumrinds Parenting Styles Sample Essay.
Write a 4 page detailed description of the four parenting styles (using your textbook and peer-reviewed articles). In this section, you should highlight the important characteristics of parents presented in Baumrind’s typology
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Requirements: 4 pages
Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Parenting styles refer to the emotional climate and control in which different parents raise their children. Based on Baumrinds theory of parenting style, it is evident that there is a close relationship between the children’s behavior and the type of parenting style they are raised in. Children exhibit different kinds of behaviors whereby each type is correlated with a specific parenting style. Parenting styles are categorized chiefly based on the degree of demandingness and responsiveness of the parents towards their children’s behavior. Some parents will control their children’s behavior and demand their maturity. On the other hand, some parents accept and be sensitive to their children’s emotional and developmental needs. According to Aunola et al. (2000), research, observation, and interviews revealed four types of parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved.
The authoritative parenting style focuses on the child’s strengths and their desired outcomes (Aunola et al., 200). It emphasizes children acting according to their own free will to gain confidence and self-esteem. Parents using this parenting style set rules and enforce them by having open discussions with the children. The parents are reasonable that they use bidirectional communication to provide the children with reasoning and explanation of their actions in a language that they can easily understand. The child’s opinion is considered and respected since the parenting style allows expression of individuality and allows their children to participate in family decision-making. The parents are affectionate and supportive towards their children; hence the technique is effective even when they become adolescents. Uninvolved parenting involves parents who are less interested in parenting or are unsure of what to do (Aunola et al.,2000). The parents in uninvolved parenting do not provide much input towards the child’s irrespective of whether positive or negative. They let the child do what they want out of lack of information or less caring hence they do not use any particular disciplinary style. Communication, in this case, is limited; thus, they deny their children all the joy brought about by a healthy interaction.
In authoritarian parenting, parents are often thought to be the sole disciplinarians whereby they set the rules which control the child’s behavior in every aspect of their life (Aunola et al., 2000). The parents use physical punishment and other forceful means to instill Obedience and gain the child’s cooperation. The rules are primarily non-negotiable, and communication is mostly one way the parents will talk as the children obey without questioning. Parents using this style are less nurturing and unresponsive to their children’s needs. Parents use their word as law in that they do not allow children to think for themselves; hence children raised in this style grow up to be followers rather than initiators. The permissive parenting style involves parents who neither control the children’s behavior nor enforce Obedience; the parents allow the children to manage their activities (Aunola et al., 2000). The permissive parents have no rules; they let the children figure out the problems on their own and retain the favor. The parents use open communication to relate with their children not as authority figures but as friends who encourage them to become autonomous. The parents, in his case, tend to be warm and nurturing.
Parenting styles largely determine the kind of environment a child is brought up in and significantly impact the child’s developmental outcomes. Studies conducted by researchers on the effect of parenting styles on children and parents have revealed that developmental outcomes are entirely dependent on parenting styles (Karbalaei et al., 2016). According to Karbalaei et al. (2016), children brought about in authoritative parenting have better mental health, less depression, anxiety, and minimal or no abuse of drugs. The children are happy, more active, capable, successful, and achieve higher academic performances. Children raised in authoritarian parenting are more prone to mental issues, are less independent, have an unhappy disposition, feel insecure, and have low self-esteem (Karbalaei et al., 2016). In authoritative parenting, the parents reason with the children and explain their actions to them in a language that they understand; the involvement of the children in decision making boosts their self-esteem, makes them happy, and hence they record better results academic-wise. On the other hand, parents exercising authoritarian parenting do not involve their children in decision-making; thus, they appear to have an unhappy disposition and low self-esteem. The children are not allowed to give their opinions since the parents’ word is viewed as the law. Permissive parenting brings about children who experience problems in authority, have egocentric tendencies, and have more problems in relationships and social interactions (Karbalaei et al., 2016). Children brought about by uninvolved parenting have low self-esteem, have mental issues, and are more likely to have addiction problems. Parents in permissive parenting do not have input in their children’s behavior since they entrust them to control their own decision. The children do not follow the rules, and they have problems interacting with people since they have no morals. On the other hand, Karbalaei et al. (2016) argue that children raised by uninvolved parenting are more likely to have addiction issues since they are not involved in their upbringing.
Every child interacts differently with the world they live in, and what they receive from others and their environments also shapes how they think and behave. Culture is defined as the complex of traditional behaviors, which includes beliefs, morals, religion, customs, and habits acquired by the human race in a particular society band live by it as a way of life. Cultural beliefs about parenting practices influence how children are raised since the parents will educate their children on what behaviors are considered appropriate and those considered vices (Jabagchourian et al., 2014). For instance, authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles are influenced mainly by culture since the parents set aside rules which control their children’s behavior. These rules have to be per the culture, teaching them how they build their values, language, and interactions with different individuals in the society (Jabagchourian et al., 2014). Other child-rearing practices depend on the history of intergroup relations in an individual’s society. The socioeconomic status of different parents in society forces them to develop adaptive strategies for raising their children. For instance, ethnic minority families formulate socialization goals to teach their children the necessary survival tactics in society. According to Assadi et al. (2011), those parents who hold the top socioeconomic status tend to have a more authoritarian parenting style than the middle class who use the authoritative style. On the other hand, the minority in the society are less skilled and less able to adopt a resource-intensive authoritative parenting style. Therefore, culture and socioeconomic status contribute towards embracing different parenting styles since the parents prepare the children on how to interact with the broader society.
Growing up, my caregiver used an authoritarian parenting style. They would set rules telling us what to do and what to avoid. Their word was viewed as the laws, and we followed without questioning them since they were the authority. They focused more on Obedience and discipline rather than nurturing the children’s morals such that if one failed to obey, they would be physically punished. In most cases, we, the children, were not given a chance to share our own opinions, and in cases where one is asked to do something and ask for a reason, the caregiver would confidently answer with “because I said so.” When working with parents in the future, I would advocate for the use of authoritative parenting. As much as there are rules, the parents exercise bidirectional communication where they reason with the children explaining their actions, and their opinions are respected. The parents should also be supportive and affectionate of their children to boost their self-esteem and encourage independence. In conclusion authoritative parenting style bring about the best developmental outcomes in children, and they tend to use morals even on the adolescent stage.
Assadi, S. M., Smetana, J., Shahmansouri, N., & Mohammadi, M. (2011). Beliefs about parental authority, parenting styles, and parent-adolescent conflict among Iranian mothers of middle adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35 (5), 424-431. do: 10.1177/0165025411409121
Aunola K, Stattin H, Nurmi JE. Parenting styles and adolescents’ achievement strategies. J Adolescent. 2000 Apr;23(2):205-22. doi: 10.1006/jado.2000.0308. PMID: 10831143.
Jabagchourian, J. J., Sorkhabi, N., Quach, W., & Strage, A. (2014). Parenting styles and practices of Latino parents and Latino fifth graders’ academic, cognitive, social, and behavioral outcomes. Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 36, 175-194. 10.1177/0739986314523289
Karbalaei Sabagh, A., Khademi, M., Noorbakhsh, S. et al. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Styles. Indian J Pediatr 83, 254-257 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-015-1851-y