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Article Critique Essay Sample Paper

Article Critique Essay Sample Paper.

Article Critique Rating Form NOTE: Please attach the journal article, in Word or pdf format, to your paper submission. A. General (4) • Is the problem significant? Is it worth studying? • Is the problem researchable? • Does it/will it contribute to the literature or advance the field? • Is it likely to be interesting to the typical reader? • Is the researcher qualified to conduct the research? (This may not always be apparent) B. Abstract (2) • Does it fit word limits (e.g., 100 words)? • Is it clear and concise? • Does it include a statement about the importance of the study, the purpose, a brief description of methodology, results, conclusions and implications? • Does it make you WANT to read the entire article? You should be able to read an abstract and figure out what the article is all about. C. Introduction to the Study (6) • Is background information provided? This should refer to the literature, provide a context for the research study, discuss trends in the field, provide statistics, perhaps a historical backdrop for the study • Does the author clearly provide a purpose for the study? • Is there a rationale or a justification for the study? Why is this important to study? Why is it important to study in just this way? Why now? Implications of studying this problem (will instruction improve, classroom conditions get better, etc.?) Implications of not studying this problem (will classroom conditions get worse?) • Is there a statement of the problem written in clear, operational terms? And does it build from the preceding sections? • Does it outline the variables of interest, if appropriate? Variables operationally defined? • Is there a definition of terms, behaviorally/operationally? Terms may be familiar to readers but may be defined uniquely for a particular study (e.g., elementary students). D. Research Questions and Hypotheses (10) • Are specific research questions provided? How well do they describe the study? • Are there too many research questions? Too few? • Are hypotheses, if appropriate, listed? Are they clear, concise, not redundant? Are they appropriate for the study? • Is each hypothesis testable? E. Review of Related Literature (16) • Is the review comprehensive? That is, does it include primary sources or secondary ones? Does it include journals (peer-reviewed, preferably), books (not too many), conference proceedings, dissertations, grant reports, information from databases, and research reports? Are the authors of studies credible? • Is it current? Articles within 5 years are desirable, with the exception of seminal articles (e,g, Lloyd Dunn’s article about the need for Special Education was written in the late 1960s) • Is the literature review relevant to the topic under study? • Does the review provide information about the variables under study? • Is the review well-organized, with headings and subheadings related to particular strands of literature? • Does the author appear to have really studied the literature, or is it simply a collection of information from abstracts or summaries? • Does the review provide a theoretical and an empirical context for the research? • If the study is a pioneering one, does the review cite and describe successful studies in related fields? • Does the literature review reveal –once again- the need for the study? • Is there a summary of the literature review? F. Methodology (24) Research Design • Is the design explained and justified? • Does the design match the purpose of the study? Subjects/ Participants • Are the size and major characteristics of the population described (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status)? • Is the method of sample selection clearly provided and justified? • Does sample selection pose sampling error or sampling bias? Are these acknowledged? • Are the size and major characteristics of the sample described? • Is the sample size appropriate for the type of study? For example, is there a calculation of power for quantitative studies? Does the sample meet minimum guidelines? If qualitative, is the sample likely to yield useful data? • If human subjects are used, are guidelines for protecting them in operation? Has IRB approval been received? Measures or Instrumentation • Are measures appropriate for measuring the intended variables? • Are the measures used appropriate for the type of study (e.g., norm-referenced measures used for comparison of test scores)? • Are the measures appropriate for the sample (e.g., a verbal measure used for a hearing impaired sample)? • Is there a rationale for the selection of measures? • Is there a description of each measure used, including its technical merits (that is, reliability, validity, development, etc.)? • For researcher-developed measures, is there complete information about development, piloting, and efforts to establish reliability and validity? • For researcher-developed measures, examine their quality, the language, and organization • Does the researcher have the skills to administer the measure? Procedures • Are procedures appropriate for examining research questions/ testing hypotheses? • Are the procedures described in sufficient detail for replication purposes? • Are the procedures described logically and sequentially? • Do procedures follow accepted guidelines for similar studies? • Does the researcher allow for potential confounding variables? • Is there a clear description of how quantitative data will be statistically analyzed (e.g., what programs will be used and for what?); How qualitative data will be managed, examined, and analyzed? G. Results and Discussion (20) • Is each finding clearly explained as it relates to the hypothesis/ research question? • Is each finding related back to the existing literature, in terms of confirming or disconfirming previous studies? • Does the researcher make generalizations that are supported by the findings? • Are theoretical and practical significance of the results discussed? • Does the author discuss unanticipated findings and try to explain them? • Are visual representations of data (e.g., tables) used effectively to explain results? • Does the author discuss statistical significance, clinical significance, and practical significance, as appropriate? H. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations (10) • Does the author provide a summary of the study that includes a reiteration of the purpose of the study? • Does the author provide 3-4 major conclusions (generalities or patterns?) • Does the author address the implications of the study, that is, is the “So What?” question answered? • Is there a discussion of the limitations of the study and perhaps, ways in which these could have been avoided? • Are there recommendations for various audiences (teachers, parents)? • Are there recommendations for future research? • Is there one powerful summary statement that ends the article on a positive (look toward the future) note? I. Organization and Writing (4) • Are the ideas clearly organized? • Are the sections in logical order? • Do headings and subheadings facilitate reading? • Is there good flow? Is the article written in a coherent manner? • Does the author write well? Is the material accessible? Engaging? • Spelling? Grammar? Typographical errors (carelessness) or patterns of errors (lack of knowledge)? • Does author use person-first language (e.g., person with a learning disability, not learning disabled person)? Non-sexist terms? Current terms? J. References, Tables, and Figures (2) • Does the author use the appropriate citation style and do so correctly? • Are references in text formatted correctly and fully? • Are references in Reference List formatted correctly and fully? • Do references in the Reference List match those in the text? • Are tables and figures formatted correctly? Are they cited appropriately, readable, and understandable? K. Summary Statement (2) • Wrap-up statement: Your overall opinion of the article

Article critique

Name

Institution

Introduction

            A condition that impairs one’s full realization of their potential is a disability. Several conditions cause learning disabilities which impairs student preservation, acquisition, understanding, and acquisition of knowledge. It’s due to mainly more or fewer processes relating to the student’s thoughts, learning abilities and perception. In the article “Awareness on Learning Disabilities among Elementary School Teachers,” Seema Menon an assistant professor (2015) examines the awareness of learning abilities among elementary school teachers. The article shows average results on awareness of learning disabilities among the students by the elementary teachers.

 Individuals differ in terms of their behavior, emotional, intellectual and physical traits. The work of a teacher is to model this trait of the student. This process influences and shapes the students in obtaining intellectual, moral and physical power. This noble task is only accomplished by a highly competent teacher.

 A child’s development into a tomorrow leader of the society is solely dependent on the education system. It promotes an all-round development through the reunification of the soul and an entire set of values. It’s the tool that enables an individual realization, achieving their personal and social aspiration. Students with disabilities are well catered for in an education system with teachers who acknowledge the existence of such disabilities.

            A child’s first contact at his or her school life happens to be the teacher. Thus ideally an elementary teacher is well positioned in pointing out a child’s learning disability. Identification of such a kid serves as a first step in distinguishing between a disabled student and a normal student. This calls for a teacher equipped with awareness in pointing out these abilities.

 Failure to doing this leads to a deficient education system that brands such students as lazy which induces in them attitude which is negative. To avoid the need of a teacher who is well aware is needed. They have to be equipped with knowledge about the concepts, characteristics, causes and the ability to identify and assess the situation. The availability of counseling services and the assessment of instructional materials is much needed.

 The aim of this study was to identify the awareness level among elementary school teachers on learning disabilities. Children’s are special and a teacher should recognize by the fact that they are endowed with both strengths and weakness at the same time. Thus a teacher should have a thorough background understanding on the different abilities and disabilities. This call for the teacher to have a familiar experience with various teaching methods, concepts, guidance, and guidance. 

This helps in boosting the education levels and encouraging a supportive environment where teachers are on the front line in identifying learning disabilities in students in their classrooms. This helps in the provision of counseling and guidance to the affected student and making sure the availability of standard learning materials.

            The study was based on elementary teacher’s level of awareness, comparing this level on the basis of gender, locale, their teaching experience and the type of management. This level of awareness based on disabilities such as dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyspraxia, and dyscalculia. The hypothesis was formulated where the level of existence of awareness amongst elementary teachers was measured.

The second hypothesis was formulated on the basis of the existing significance on a different level of awareness on teachers based on their locality, gender, teaching experience and the type of management they were exposed in the various teaching environs. The third and final hypothesis was based on the existing difference in the levels of awareness based on the type of disabilities. The disabilities dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and dyspraxia.

            The survey method was used by the investigator. A sample for the study was teachers from various elementary school. The sample size was 500. Stratified random sampling techniques were used. The tool used for the study was to test the awareness of learning disability. Various statistical methods were employed. The nature of the distribution of the results from the sample was known through the use of descriptive statistics. It includes meaning, mode, standard deviation, and mode.

The normality of distribution was worked through the establishment of Skewness and Kurtosis. The level of awareness on learning disabilities among the school teachers. The significance test was done using the (t-test) between the two means. Its purpose was to find out the difference in significance between the awareness of two mean scores. Further analysis was done using analysis of variance on one way testing the significance in difference amongst more means.

            Teachers were classified in the finding on their level of awareness, the classification was on a scale where the low were those who score <18 and their percentage was 11.8. The second classification was the average with a score between 18 to 28 with a percentage of 73.8. The last classification was high with a score great than or equal to 28 with a percentage of 14.4. This showed that teachers had an awareness of the existence of disabilities amongst elementary students this as the majority scored on the average score. 

The t-test was used to find any significance in differences in the level of awareness based on their locality and one’s respective gender. Significances in differences in the two mean score amongst elementary were studied using ANOVA. The sample size of males was 180 and females was 320. Males scored a mean 21. While their counterparts scored 24.52. The standard deviations were 4.517 and 4.528 respectively. At a level of 7.799 was obtained on a significance level of 0.01. This critical ratio of 7.799 greater than the table of 2.58 leads to a conclusion that differences in significance existed on the level of awareness.

               Significances in a level of awareness their means based the locality. Elementary teachers from the urban were 270 and 230 for rural teachers. The mean score for urban was 23.85 and 22.91 was for the urban. The standard deviation was 4.609 and 4.890 respectively. The critical ration from the t-test was 2.211. The t value obtained was greater than the value of the table of 1.96 at .05 significance of the level. This portrays a difference in significance among the elementary on the level of their awareness.

Subsamples obtained based on the difference in the type of management teachers working under government, aided or unaided management. It was tested on a 0.01 significance level and the F value obtained was 49.956 which was greater than the table’s value of 2.58. This indicates the existences of a difference in significance in the levels of awareness amongst teachers under different management institutions.

Further Scheffe Post Hoc Test was used to identify significant mean score amongst teachers. This test further divided management into three divisions namely unaided, aided and the government. This test revealed more awareness amongst school teachers in government-aided schools. Its mean score of 24.75 was higher than the aided with a score 0f 23.31 and lastly unaided 19.52. The significant level is 0.01 levels.

ANOVA was used to analyze the level of awareness based on teaching experiences subsamples. The experience was grouped in year’s brackets less than 10 years, 10-20 years and 20 years above. It was based on a significance level of 0.05. The calculated F value was 1.307 less than 1.96.

From the analysis level of awareness based on the disabilities shown that the teachers were more aware of dysgraphia with a percentage of 59.18 and less aware about dyspraxia 53.85%. Z value is obtained to test various proportion of the disabilities. From the Z score, it is revealed are more aware of dysgraphia and less aware in dyspraxia. 

The samples size of 500 teachers is a small number compared to the teacher in the whole country. T-test allows the uses of a small sample size, thus each participant in the sample size take parts, this saves on the cost of collecting data for analyses and the cost is dramatically reduced. T-test allows control of individual differences which results in small random errors due to small effects.  Although T test reduces the error viability it also has impairments. One is needed to collect data over and over again this causes fatigue. This is especially in the case of humans under which our sample size dealt with teachers. This also poses a problem as it would be difficult to keep on collecting data.

The results obtained has an educational implication on the practices and how improvement should be carried out to foster awareness of disabilities. Through the study awareness on students with learning disabilities should be improved as teachers scored an average mark.

This can be achieved through inducting teachers in programs where they are to be made to understand the concepts, symptoms, and features of various disabilities. There should be an implementation of a proper curriculum where it is planned and implemented for the disabled students. This should be also be accompanied by a special education teacher who can cater to the need of those students disabled in learning.

An awareness programme should be carried out throughout the country. This is through organizing workshops, seminars, and training for the special education teachers dealing with such children. A slogan for the support of this should be undertaken by the humanitarians. This should be followed by counseling and guidance being set up in various elementary schools. Teachers in this should take it in their interest to identify this kid as early as possible. Thus the centers set up would be of help to these kids.

Conclusion

There is an average on the knowledge of the existence of students with learning disabilities. This shows an effort with the education system to cater to the needs of these kids. More effort should be put into ensuring an increase in awareness. Measures should be put in place to help the identified kids to mold physique, emotions and the intellectual like kids normal learning capabilities. Awareness should be more emphasized in rural areas than the urban areas, this is due to the fact urban areas residents are more exposed. More emphasis should be placed on the male teachers as females scored more in awareness.

References

Menon K. P., S. (2019). Awareness of Learning Disabilities among Elementary School Teachers. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1148351

K.P, S. (2016). Awareness of Learning Disabilities among Elementary School Teachers. Asian Journal Of Education And Training, 2(2), 78-83. doi: 10.20448/journal.522/2016.2.2/522.2.78.83

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