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Answer To Question Study Guide

Answer To Question


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Study Guide Questions

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Institution

Book 1

Answer to question 1

The word end means the cessation of an effort, activity, state of motion. While Aristotle uses the word end as a synonym for purpose, for example, he says that some ends act as activities, while other ends act as products. If there is cessation for the activities that human beings desire and if their choice of the events is not based on a particular purpose, then the end will be the good and the chief of the good. Aristotle uses the word end as a purpose human beings activities, and also as a purpose for the final good that comes from their choices.

Answer to question 2

The principle that states that, if x is for the sake of y, then y is better than y can be explained by discussing the relationship between desire and purpose. According to Aristotle, there is a purpose or an end in every activity that human beings engage in. Passion influences the goal. In a case, people decided not to do their activities based on a specific purpose; then the end is treated as the good and the chief good. In this case, x is the purpose or the end, and y is the product. In every activity, ambition and desire influence people, which gives a good product. Actions are good since they influence the end or the purpose, but they are not as good as the end; hence, y is better than x.

Answer to question 3

Aristotle says that the function of a human being is an activity of soul which follows or implies reason (Aristotle, 2014). The function argument tries to explain that the role of a human being is not based on their body parts. The function of human beings as a whole are not based on what their body parts can do, but it is a function of souls. The function argument tries to explain the goodness of human beings based on how well they can perform their activity whereby the activity of human beings is the activity of soul which follows or implies reason.

                                                                        Book 2

Answer to question 1

According to Aristotle, nature does not influence how human beings adapt to virtues. However, habituation affects how human beings acquire different attributes. Aristotle explains that nothing that exists by nature can form a habit contrary to its nature to justify the claim that virtue does not arise by nature.

Answer to question 2

The cause of arts and that of virtues are not similar since the products of the artworks have their goodness in themselves so that it is enough that they should have a particular character. Still, if the acts that are per the virtues have themselves a specific character, it does not follow that they are justly done or temperately (Aristotle, 2014).

Answer to question 3

Aristotle tries to infer an ought from an is in his explanation of human ethics and how they came to be. Human beings are brought up in a certain way from childhood and in their youth that determines how people are affected by choice of their actions. The account that grounds ethics requires people to term something as good because moral virtue is concerned with pleasures and pains, it is no account of pleasure that people od bad things, and on account of pain that they abstain from doing bad things (Aristotle, 2014).

Book 3, Chapter 1-5

Answer to question 1

Involuntary actions are actions that are because of ignorance. The assumption that involuntary actions are forced might not be valid since some involuntary actions are due to ignorance. When a person acts by reason of ignorance, the activity is unintentional, but when they act in ignorance, the action is not involuntary. Any action that leads to pain and regret is spontaneous. A voluntary action is that which the moving principle is in the agent himself, and he is aware of the particular circumstances (Aristotle, 2014). When a person commits an act while fully aware of the events and consequences involved, then he or she is acting voluntarily. An action did, while angry is also voluntary since although anger influenced the act, the person was aware of the consequences at hand. When an agent is forced to do an action without reason if ignorance, then the action is considered as forced.

Answer To Question study guide

Answer to question 2

For ignorance to make an action involuntary, the action must have used pain and regret, for it is unintentional. A person can act by reason of ignorance only if the individual is ignorant of the right sort of things. For an action to be considered involuntary, the person is ignorant of the right things, such as not knowing what goals that drive them, not the rules and regulations to follow, and not being aware of the circumstances involved in the action. An action could be non-voluntary without being involuntary

Answer to question 3

If an act is at the spur of the moment, it is voluntary. An activity that is not at the spur of the moment is a chosen act since before doing the action, one might have pre-thought about it. For example, children act deliberately since they do not make a choice; they act ta the spur of the moment.

Answer to question 4

Wish relates to the end, and choice relates to the means. A person can choose to work towards gaining something like losing weight, the act of desire to lose weight is a wish, and the mechanisms that the person will engage in to lose weight is the choice. Therefore choice relates to the things that are in the power of human beings, but wishes are not in the power of human beings. One will wish to be healthy; they choose acts to help them achieve that wish.

Answer to question 5

Deliberation is concerned with the things that happen in a certain way, for the most part, but in which the event is obscure, and with ideas in which is indeterminate (Aristotle, 2014). Human beings deliberate about the end that they wish to have or achieve but not on the action that will contribute to the end. The account of deliberation is essential in the definition of choice since human beings hold power over the object of choice, and the choice is a deliberate desire of the things in their ability.

Answer to question 6

Different people have different views about the object of wish, whether it is for the good or the apparent good, thus creating a dilemma. For those people who say that the object of wish is for the good, they should agree that the things that a man does not choose aright, but he desires them; they are not objects of wish. For the people who say that the object of wish is for the apparent good, they must also agree that which has no natural object, but only what seems so to each man. Aristotle solves this dilemma by appealing to the judgment of the good man as the standard truth. The truth that good people want is objectively good, and bad people are mistaken about what is truly good (Aristotle, 2014).

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Reference

Aristotle. (2014). Nicomachean ethics. Hackett Publishing.

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