Alexander Stephens Sample Essay.
HIS 101 Chapter 16 Open-Book Reading Quiz
- What did Alexander Stephens claim was “indelibly stamped upon everything I meet, even upon the faces of the people”?
- Which of the following is NOT true about the South after the War?
Lincoln believed the former Confederate states had formally left the Union and were now “conquered territory,” but should be treated with moderation.
- Which of the following was NOT true of the debates over Reconstruction?
The Wade-Davis Manifesto was a compromise between Lincoln and the Radical Republicans.
- Which of the following is NOT true about 1865?
At the North Carolina Freedmen’s Convention, James Walker Hood was chosen as president. He stated African Americans needed the right to testify in courts and serve on juries, but believed the time was not right for all black men to be given the vote.
- Which of the following is NOT true about former Confederates trying to remain dominant in the post-War South?
Despite severe restrictions, freedmen had limited rights to the vote, could on occasion serve on juries, and could testify against whites only “with good cause.”
- Congress passed the Civil Rights Act in 1866, declaring that “all persons born in the United States” were citizens. President Johnson argued that the act discriminated against “the white race,” and vetoed the bill. For the first time in US history with regards to a major bill, Congress then overturned the presidential veto. The 14th Amendment made the Civil Rights Act even more secure.
- Which of the following statements about Andrew Johnson is NOT true?
The Tenure of Office Act allowed Congress to remove Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, a staunch supporter of the President.
- Which of the following is NOT true about 1868?
The Fifteenth Amendment gave all adult citizens the vote, including women.
- Which of the following is NOT true about Black Society under Reconstruction?
All former Confederate states, with the exception of Louisiana, elected African Americans to various government positions.
- Many former slaves said what they needed most was land. Sharecropping was one way the freedman could acquire land of their own and finally experience complete economic and social independence.
- Which of these definitions is NOT correct?
After falling out with Ulysses S. Grant, President Johnson became known as “the Lion of Vicksburg.”
- Which of the following is NOT true about the first Grant administration?
Grant’s skills at commanding an army helped make him a good president as well.
- The Union League became an important political tool for African American men even within the Democratic Party.
- Grant believed the “Indian problem” was in fact the result of “bad whites.” But while he appointed a Seneca chief named Ely Parker (his personal military secretary from the Civil War) as Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Grant still believed Native Americans had to give up their nomadic traditions and relocate to government reservations.
- Which of the following statements is NOT true?
The intense debates over monetary policy, in which Grant favord paper currency (or “soft” currency) as opposed to metallic (or “hard”) currency
- Which of the following is NOT true about the early 1870s?
The Enforcement Acts (including the KKK Act of 1871) would have given Grant the power to effectively kill the Klan. Grant, however, refused to take any action because he himself favored the Klan’s attempt to dominate southern society.
- Which of the following is NOT true about legal action taken during the later years of Reconstruction?
The “Slaughterhouse Cases” (1873) affirmed federal authority over state government, allowing the federal government to retain legal jurisdiction over all citizens in the US. This enabled the federal government to better enforce the 14th Amendment.
- By making state, not federal government responsible for protecting citizens from attacks by other private citizens, the “Slaughterhouse” and “Cruikshank” cases “gutted” the 14th Amendment, leaving African Americans even more vulnerable to discrimination and violence.
- In the election of 1876, the campaigns avoided controversial issues. Democrats focused on scandals during the Grant administrations, while Republicans “waved the bloody shirt,” associating Democrats with secession, the Civil War, and even the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.
- Ohioan Rutherford B. Hayes won the contested presidential election of 1876 with a “compromise” that involved him removing federal forces from the South in 1877 (the traditional “end” year of Reconstruction, and of this course). At the same time the “Lost Cause” interpretation began to romanticize the antebellum South, and remove slavery as major factor in the “War of Northern Aggression.” But despite the tragic shortcomings of Reconstruction, the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments did set the stage of later advancement in the search for equality and civil rights, not just for African Americans, but for women and other minority groups…